Procedures for EHA
Authorized Reproduction and Use of Copyrighted Material
Single Copying for Teachers
A single copy may be made of any of the following by or for
a teacher at his or her individual request for his or her
scholarly research or use in teaching or preparation to teach
1. A chapter from a book;
2. An article from a periodical or newspaper;
3. A short story, short essay or short poem, whether or not
from a collective work;
4. A chart, graph, diagram, cartoon or picture from a book,
periodical, or newspaper.
Multiple Copies for Classroom Use
Multiple copies (not to exceed in any event more than one
copy per pupil in a course) may be made by or for the teacher
giving the course for classroom use or discussion, provided
1. The copying meets the tests of brevity and spontaneity
as defined below; and
2. Meets the cumulative effect test as defined below; and
3. Each copy includes a notice of copyright.
1. Poetry: (a) A complete poem if less than 250 words and
if printed on not more than two pages or, (b) from a longer
poem, an excerpt of not more than 250 words.
2. Prose: (a) Either a complete article, story or essay of
less than 2500 words, or (b) an excerpt from any prose work
of not more than 1000 words or 10% of the work, whichever
is less, but in any event a minimum of 500 words.
[Each of the numerical limits stated in (A) and (B) above
may be expanded to permit the completion of an unfinished
line of a poem or of an unfinished prose paragraph.]
3. Illustration: One chart, graph, diagram, drawing, cartoon
or picture per book or per periodical issue.
4. Special works: Certain works in poetry, prose or in "poetic
prose" which often combine language with illustrations
and which are intended sometimes for children and at other
times for a more general audience fall short of 250 words
in their entirety. Paragraph (ii) above notwithstanding, such
"special works" may not be reproduced in their entirety;
however, an excerpt comprising not more than two of the published
pages of such special work and containing not more than 10
of the words found in the text thereof, may be reproduced.
1. The copying is at the instance and inspiration of the individual
2. The inspiration and decision to use the work and the moment
of its use for maximum teaching effectiveness are so close
in time that it would be unreasonable to expect a timely reply
to a request for permission.
J. Cumulative Effect:
1. The copying of the material is for only one course in the
school in which the copies are made.
2. Not more than one short poem, article, story, essay or
two excerpts may be copied from the same author, nor more
than three from the same collective work or periodical volume
during one class term.
3. There shall not be more than nine instances of such multiple
copying for one course during one class term. [The limitations
stated in (A) and (B) above shall not apply to current news
periodicals and newspapers and current news sections of other
Notwithstanding any of the above, the following shall be prohibited:
F. Copying shall not be used to create or to replace or substitute
for anthologies, compilations or collective works. Such replacement
or substitution may occur whether copies of various works
or excerpts therefrom are accumulated or reproduced and used
G. There shall be no copying of or from works intended to
be "consumable" in the course of study or of teaching.
These include workbooks, exercises, standardized tests and
test booklets and answer sheets and like consumable material.
H. Copying shall not:
1. substitute for the purchase of books, publishers' reprints
2. be directed by higher authority;
3. be repeated with respect to the same item by the same teacher
from term to term.
I. No charge shall be made to the student beyond the actual
cost of the photocopying.
Adopted: 16 April, 2009